Complications related to the actual IUI procedure are very rare. IUI is a simple, in-office, nonsurgical procedure, usually performed by nurses. Occasionally, patients may experience mild to moderate uterine cramps as the catheter is passed through the cervix into their uterus. These cramps usually last 10 to 15 minutes. Infection rarely occurs (its incidence is less than 1%).
Many infertility specialists routinely obtain cervical cultures prior to initiating an IUI cycle, and the culture media used to prepare the IUI specimen commonly contains antibiotics. Occasionally, patients may note some light spotting after placement of the IUI catheter, but this is not an indication of a complication or a problem. Multiple pregnancy can occur in any situation when two or more mature follicles are present at the time of HCG. Your physician should discuss with you the risk of multiple pregnancy in cycles using fertility medication to induce the growth of multiple follicles. Similarly, patients with an excessive response to fertility medication can also be at risk for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). However, both multiple gestation and OHSS can result from the stimulation of the ovary with hormones regardless of whether an IUI is performed or not.